On Farm Trials (OFT) is all about providing farmers with the information they need to improve the profitability of their farming enterprise.
KVK had formulated on farm trials on the basis of existing farming situations and feedback from farmers and field functionaries. New technologies were tested in participation with the farmers and were then taken to farmers fields for demonstrations. Some of the important on farm trials conducted by KVK in the last five years have been listed below.
1. Assessment of Pusa varieties of paddy for their yield potential
2. Evaluation of wheat varieties for yield potential in Jammu district
3. Effect of Sulphur application on Yield of oilseed.
4. Efficacy of Agro-Chemicals in management of terminal stress in Indian mustard (Pusa 28)
5. Assessment of feed supplement on Fish production
6. Effect of inorganic fertilizers on fish production
7. Introduction and performance of marigold varietiesfor higher yield
8. Assessment of high yielding Oat varieties for higher productivity
9. Evaluation of improved perennial grasses for herbage production under subtropical conditions
10. Assessment of yield potential of different composite under Rainfed condition
11. Assessment of improved Basmati varieties for yield potential
12. Assessment of conoweeder for weed management in farmers field
13. Assessment of superior clones of Harad with respect to survival and establishment
14. Integrated Nutrient Management in Okra
15. Assessment of supplementation of inorganic fertilizer on fish production
16. Assessment of impact of feed supplement on fish production
17. Assessment of improved perennial grasses for herbage production under subtropical conditions
Outcome of On Farm Trials
The purpose of conducting on-farm trials is to expand the effective technologies throughout the district for large scale adoption on farmers' fields. KVK has transferred the results of all the successful trials on farmers' fields through frontline demonstrations. Moreover, based on the results of OFTs conducted by KVK Kathua, some of the technologies have been recommended for inclusion in Package of Practices of the University as given below:
1. Problem definition: Low productivity due to attack of gram pod borer Technology assessed: Effect of insecticides for management of gram podborer
Gram (Chick pea) is an important pulse crop grown by the farmers in Kathua district during Rabi season and is attacked by number of pests and diseases. Among all, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) is the most serious pest of chickpea .In severe cases, it causes about 75-90 % losses in seed yield. Gram pod borer damaged leaves, tender shoots, apical tips, floral buds and the pods. Every year, the infestation of pod borer in gram cause huge economic losses. Therefore, KVK-Kathua conducted On Farm Trials (OFTs) at five locations in the district to assess the effect of insecticides for management gram pod borer. The results of the OFT showed that Indoxacarb 14.5Sc @ 1ml/lt. of water resulted in 75.96% reduction in damage to pods and increased grain yield upto 32.37% over farmers practice
2. Problem definition: Low productivity of old traditional wheat varieties grown in hilly area of district Kathua Technology assessed: Evaluation of new wheat varieties under hilly regions of Kathua district
Wheat is an important cereal crop of Kathua district and is grown in 44,584 hectare area of the district. Due to cultivation of old/ traditional wheat varieties grown in hilly area, the productivity is quite low. To overcome the problem of low productivity in hilly region, KVK Kathua conducted On Farm Trials (OFTs) at five locations to evaluate new wheat varieties under hilly region. The results of the OFT revealed that HS-507 and HS-490 recorded 29.5% and 24.5 % increase in grain yield over traditional variety (HS-240) with B:C ratio 3.0 and 2.6 respectively, as compared to farmers practice HS-240.
3. Problem definition: Scarcity of feed resources / utilisation of unconventional available feed stuffs Technology assessed: Evaluation of maize cobs as a replacement for wheat straw
In recent years farmers in Kathua district facing a deficiency of feedstuffs for feeding of its livestock population. KVK Kathua conducted On Farm Trials (OFTs) at four locations to evaluate maize cobs as a replacement for wheat straw. The results of the OFT showed that 100 % replacement of wheat straw with complete maize in chopped form and 50 % replacement of wheat straw with Maize cobs resulted in an 5.7 litre and 5.2 litre increase of milk production per animal per day respectively over farmers practice (straw) that resulted 4.5 litre of milk production.
4. Problem definition: Low productivity of traditional basmati rice varieties grown in District Kathua along with the problem of late maturity of basmati rice Technology assessed: Comparative performance of new basmati rice varieties
Rice is an important cereal crop of Kathua district and is grown in an area of 28872 ha with production of 967219 quintals. Farmers of the district were experiencing low productivity of old basmati rice varieties like Pusa -1121 and others leading to low production and less economic returns. Further, Pusa-1121 have more maturity time that results in delayed wheat sowing. KVK Kathua conducted on farm trials at farmers field to assess the comparative performance of new basmati rice varieties. The data of the OFT revealed that Pusa-1612 recorded highest yield (4570 kg/ha), with B:C ratio (1:2.7). Pusa-1612 have (18.9/hill) no. of effective tillers per hill with 15-20 days early maturity as compared to Pusa -1121(farmers practice). Pusa -1509 also gave more yield (4290kg/ha) with 20-25 days earliness in maturity over farmers practice.
5. Problem definition: Low milk yield animals due to scarcity of fodder Technology assessed: Evaluation of the effect ofUMMB on the milk yield of animals
Livestock forms an important component of the village economy. Balanced animal feeding is required to exploit the full potential of the animals. Framers of the village were feeling economic distress due to low milk yield of the animals. This was due to different factors like small land holdings, erratic weather conditions; economic conditions etc. farmers do not have enough feed resources. This leads to poor productivity of the animals. An OFT was conducted to evaluate the effect of the UMMB on the productivity of the animals and to mitigate the scarcity of the feed resources. Results of the trials revealed that feeding of the UMMB lead to an average overall increase of the milk production upto 0.8 litres in the cattle over a period of the 4 months during the period of OFT. At the end of the trial period B:C ratio comes to around 1.9.